Saturday, May 23, 2020

Christopher Columbus And The Discover Of America - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1243 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/15 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Christopher Columbus Essay Did you like this example? They were times of discovery. The new caravels looked like the safest ships you could think of. Together with the newly invented compass and the sextant, they urged sailors to venture into the seas. On the other hand, in 1453, the Turks entered Constantinople (and since then they called it Istanbul), closing the Mediterranean for trade with the Indies. This event represented a blow to the European kingdoms, as it meant the consolidation of a powerful empire that controlled part of the Mediterranean Sea and even represented a threat to them. Closure of trade routes In addition to seizing Constantinople, the Turks closed the path of European merchants who sought to acquire goods from the East and established strict control over these products. From that moment, finding a new route to the Indies became a vital necessity. Portugal already had much invested looking for the route to the Indies traveling east, bordering the coast of Africa, where they had even found some gold. Travel to India was a very good business, they gave profits of 1,000 percent. But investing in looking for the road to the Indies traveling to the West was very risky. Historians investigate who financed the first trip of Columbus. Queen Isabel had already spent all her jewels in the war to drive the Moors out of Spain. The historian Salvador de Madariaga mentions two important loans from new Christians, one from the Pinz?n family, another from the Sanngel bank. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Christopher Columbus And The Discover Of America" essay for you Create order The historian Cecil Roth also found other loans to the kings of Spain before the first trip of Columbus, the Genoese bankers Spinola, Di Negri and Berardi. The Genoese were not descendants of converts, but they liked to invest in maritime discovery companies. The Discovery of America is a historical event that has marked the history of both Spain and America. It is also called the meeting of two worlds. It was on October 12, 1492, when Christopher Columbus, a Genoese navigator, discovered a new continent without realizing it.During the time of Christopher Columbus, fifteenth century it was believed that there was only one way to reach the Asian continent. Christopher Columbus, as a child, was always interested in geography, navigation, maps and other aspects that made Columbus curious to discover another way to reach the East Indies and find great wealth. The idea of Columbus was that, because the Earth was round, it could reach the west. He presented his plan to the King of Portugal, but he rejected it, saying that he demanded too much. Columbus did not give up, he was still looking for a way for someone to support him with his trip. The friar Juan Porez, who had a lot of influence with the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, helped them give him financial help for his trip. Finally, on April 17, 1492, the Catholic Monarchs and Christopher Columbus signed The Capitulations of Santa Fe And Columbus begins to prepare his fleets to start the expedition. Colon had everything ready, 3 boats that I baptize La Nia , La Pinta and La Santa Mara the only thing they needed were sailors to accompany him and they will help him during the trip. Colon needs at least sixty men, eighty would be even better and one hundred would be ideal. And, to be able to be, not novice sailors but men with experience. But since the proclamation of the decree of the Queen in the Church of St. George Martyr, the men of sticks remain on the defensive; nobody wants to accompany him.Everyone is afraid to trust that stranger whose fantastic ideas circulate all kinds of rumors. Finally, Columbus was able to get his crew. Around 100 sailors decided to be part of the expedition. Many of them were afraid, others worried about their families, fearing never to return. The trip began on August 3, 1942, and it was until October 12 when the sailor Rodrigo de Triana shouted Tierra!. They disembarked on an island, baptized by Columbus as San Salvador. They had reached the American continent but Columbus thought it was the West Indies. They were surprised by the attitude that the so-called Indians had with the Spaniards. The navigator Marco Polo had mentioned that in the Indies there were very civilized people, great palaces and a lot of wealth. But, because Columbus did not know it was a new continent, everything he saw did not make much sense with what he had already heard. For Christopher Columbus, it was a great Cultural Shock to get to a new place, new people very different from the Spaniards, they wore little clothes and spoke a language they did not understand at all. For the same reason that it was something completely different from what he was used to, it was hard for him to adapt. Columbus ordered six men to be loaded into the boat where they were going to visit the new islands, and they had to learn four phrases in Spanish and serve as interpreters and explorers in other islands.Columbus and the other navigators continued to explore the new island discovered by sailing on the rafts built by the natives. They guided the Spaniards and they were getting to know the different Islands. Columbus always thought that he was in China and when the Indians showed them the places where there was gold, he thought that some king lived nearby and thats why there were so many riches. But as they advance, Columbus and the sailors realize that there was no gold and needed him to take it to the queen and to pay him what he gave her for his expedition. After continuing touring different islands such as Hispaniola, today is known as Haiti and the Dominican Republic until finally arriving in Cuba, where the Indians said that they would find gold there. During their trip, Columbus was getting to know the Indians more. He tried to adapt to his way of life and realized they were good people. In all the islands, and always according to Columbus, the inhabitants seem hospitable, happy and innocent. So in their huts hang some things of spun cotton and nets in which they slept what they called hammocks. But even though the Europeans admired the simplicity of the Indians, they were worried, upset and offended. Innocence never ceases to offend, never stops inviting the attack, and the Indians seemed the most innocent people anyone has ever seen. Without the help of Christianity or civilization, they had achieved virtues that Europeans liked to think were the right result of Christianity and civilization. The fury with which the Spaniards assaulted the Arawaks even after enslaving them must surely have been in part a blind impulse to crush an innocence that seemed to negate the Europeans prized assumption of their own civilized and Christian superiority over barbarous nudes and pagans. After several days of being on different islands, Christopher Columbus decides to return to Spain to tell the Catholic Monarchs about his arrival in the Indies. Thanks to the trip of Columbus they begin to develop different trips but never one like the first one. Christopher Columbus, for his great interest in wanting to show the world that there were different ways to get to the Indies, discovered a new continent. At first, everything was different. Nothing coincided with what he had been told about the Indies. Christopher Columbus died on May 19, 1506, in the city of Valladolid in Spain without knowing that he had discovered a new continent.

Monday, May 11, 2020

How Drinking Addiction Is Under Challenge - 1403 Words

Nowadays as science and technology develop rapidly, traditional theory of explaining drinking addiction is under challenge. More and more neuroscientists, psychologists and biologists contribute to the exploration of chemical mechanisms working behind alcohol and addiction. As one of the most well-known neuroscientist, Marc Lewis (2011) offers his point of view is that alcohol ultimately affects the brain, which is the source of all our experience (p.22). As we all know, brain is the primary organ of mind, the crucial center of control, and the ultimate foundation of ideas. Even subtle changes in brain can directly lead to the alteration in a person’s mood, cognition and behaviours. Based on the knowledge that I learned in†¦show more content†¦Neurotransmitters carry information and transmit chemical signals throughout the body. This corresponds to what Lewis introduces- a crucial inhibitory neurotransmitter-GABA and the change of firing rate of neurons in the cortex. Contrary to common beliefs, alcohol is actually a depressant. By enhancing GABA’s transmission, alcohol slows down our thoughts, impede our behaviours and weakens our judgements. Scientifically saying, â€Å"the brain’s electrical activities are decreased† (Connor, 2014). This is why Lewis feels â€Å"different- light and breezy, but then hugely clumsy when he [tries to] reach for the bottle too quickly† when he gets drunk for the first time (Lewis, 2011, p. 19). His consciousness is clear, but his body movement is limited, which tells us that the interactions between neurotransmitters are eliminated. This situation is also listed in the effects of drinking section in Teen Health textbook, stating that coordination and movement may be affected by alcohol (Mc-Graw Hill, 2004, p. 569). Also, the chapter 13 of Al-Anon book revolves around an event about helping a teenage to curb her violent temper. In the story, the girl says, â€Å"I knew that my violence against my mom was never a voluntary act. I didn’t want to hurt her, but I didn’t know how to stop, how to break the pattern† (Al-Anon, 1995, p.478). From her words, we can tell that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Research Questions, Objectives and Hypothesis Free Essays

Research objectives are the goals of the research study. Research objectives specify the reason researchers are conducting research. For example, researchers may want to better understand the difference in pain scale results among subjects with a diagnosis of moderate traumatic brain injury. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Questions, Objectives and Hypothesis or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this case the research objective would cause researchers to take steps to conduct scientific analysis to determine the variations in pain experienced between a group of individuals without a diagnosis of TBI and a group of individuals with TBI. The research objective is to determine if there is a difference in perceived pain levels among patients with a diagnosis of moderate traumatic brain injury as compared with individuals without a diagnosis of moderate traumatic brain injury. The objective is the reason researchers are conducting the research. Farrugia et al. cites Hayes in saying when formulating a research objective it is essential to know â€Å"where the boundary between current knowledge and ignorance lies. † (Farrugia 2010). Understanding the missing component among previously conducted research and current observations is a key component when formulating a research objective. Research questions are the questions asked in order to achieve the objective. According to Farrugia et al. , an effective research question should â€Å"specify the population of interest, be of interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field† and be compliant with current ethical standards (Farrugia et al. 2010). The study authors further suggest using the FINER criteria in order to develop an effective initial research question. This delineates the research question into several component parts to analyze in detail the efficacy of the research question and if, among all the available or visible possible questions, the question chosen is the most effective research question to guide the study. For example, according to Jackson, a research question may state â€Å"do science majors score higher on intelligence tests then students in the general population† (Jackson 2011). This question guides the course of the research study and guides researchers in setting up the study effectively and accurately. It is important, throughout the course of research, to ensure that additional questions do not cloud the initial research question (Farrugia et al. 2010). This requires a focus on the original research question and the ability of researchers to set aside additional questions that may arise for later research studies. A research hypothesis or alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis which researchers â€Å"want to support that predicts a significant difference exists between the two groups being compared† (Jackson 2011). For further description, Farrugia et al. describes the research hypothesis a hypothesis developed â€Å"from the research question and then the main elements of the study — sampling strategy, intervention (if applicable), comparison and outcome variables — are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical and ultimately clinical significance† (Farrugia et al.2010). The research hypothesis differs from the null hypothesis and sets the course of the study, the study details and types of measures used during the study. Jackson provides an example of a research hypothesis being derived from an initial research objective when a researcher wants to illustrate that children who attend educationally-based after school programs have higher IQ scores compared to children who do not attend educationally-based after school programs. The alternative hypothesis in this case would be that the researcher wants to prove that children who attend educationally-based after school programs have higher IQ scores. In order to accomplish this, because of the nature of proving and disproving facts and the impossibility of proving the truth of the hypothesis through statistics, the researcher would have to construct a null hypothesis â€Å"the hypothesis predicting that no differences exists between the groups being compares† (Jackson 2011). In this case the null hypotheses would perhaps say that children who attend academically-based after school programs have the same IQ scores as children who do not attend such programs. This would then allow the researcher to attempt to disprove the null hypothesis using inferential statistics to reject the null hypothesis, which in turn would mean the research or alternative hypothesis, is potentially supported by the data gathered by the researcher. Another important consideration is weather the hypothesis will be one-tailed or two-tailed. A one-tailed hypothesis is an hypothesis â€Å"in which the researcher predicts the direction of the expected difference between the groups† (Jackson 2011). A two-tailed hypothesis is â€Å"an alternative hypothesis in which the researcher predicts that the groups being compared differ but does not predict the direction of the difference. † Whether one-tailed or two tailed (Jackson 2011) the hypothesis gives credence to the research and provides the schema on which researchers build their research study. How to cite Research Questions, Objectives and Hypothesis, Essays