Saturday, May 23, 2020

Christopher Columbus And The Discover Of America - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1243 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/15 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Christopher Columbus Essay Did you like this example? They were times of discovery. The new caravels looked like the safest ships you could think of. Together with the newly invented compass and the sextant, they urged sailors to venture into the seas. On the other hand, in 1453, the Turks entered Constantinople (and since then they called it Istanbul), closing the Mediterranean for trade with the Indies. This event represented a blow to the European kingdoms, as it meant the consolidation of a powerful empire that controlled part of the Mediterranean Sea and even represented a threat to them. Closure of trade routes In addition to seizing Constantinople, the Turks closed the path of European merchants who sought to acquire goods from the East and established strict control over these products. From that moment, finding a new route to the Indies became a vital necessity. Portugal already had much invested looking for the route to the Indies traveling east, bordering the coast of Africa, where they had even found some gold. Travel to India was a very good business, they gave profits of 1,000 percent. But investing in looking for the road to the Indies traveling to the West was very risky. Historians investigate who financed the first trip of Columbus. Queen Isabel had already spent all her jewels in the war to drive the Moors out of Spain. The historian Salvador de Madariaga mentions two important loans from new Christians, one from the Pinz?n family, another from the Sanngel bank. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Christopher Columbus And The Discover Of America" essay for you Create order The historian Cecil Roth also found other loans to the kings of Spain before the first trip of Columbus, the Genoese bankers Spinola, Di Negri and Berardi. The Genoese were not descendants of converts, but they liked to invest in maritime discovery companies. The Discovery of America is a historical event that has marked the history of both Spain and America. It is also called the meeting of two worlds. It was on October 12, 1492, when Christopher Columbus, a Genoese navigator, discovered a new continent without realizing it.During the time of Christopher Columbus, fifteenth century it was believed that there was only one way to reach the Asian continent. Christopher Columbus, as a child, was always interested in geography, navigation, maps and other aspects that made Columbus curious to discover another way to reach the East Indies and find great wealth. The idea of Columbus was that, because the Earth was round, it could reach the west. He presented his plan to the King of Portugal, but he rejected it, saying that he demanded too much. Columbus did not give up, he was still looking for a way for someone to support him with his trip. The friar Juan Porez, who had a lot of influence with the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, helped them give him financial help for his trip. Finally, on April 17, 1492, the Catholic Monarchs and Christopher Columbus signed The Capitulations of Santa Fe And Columbus begins to prepare his fleets to start the expedition. Colon had everything ready, 3 boats that I baptize La Nia , La Pinta and La Santa Mara the only thing they needed were sailors to accompany him and they will help him during the trip. Colon needs at least sixty men, eighty would be even better and one hundred would be ideal. And, to be able to be, not novice sailors but men with experience. But since the proclamation of the decree of the Queen in the Church of St. George Martyr, the men of sticks remain on the defensive; nobody wants to accompany him.Everyone is afraid to trust that stranger whose fantastic ideas circulate all kinds of rumors. Finally, Columbus was able to get his crew. Around 100 sailors decided to be part of the expedition. Many of them were afraid, others worried about their families, fearing never to return. The trip began on August 3, 1942, and it was until October 12 when the sailor Rodrigo de Triana shouted Tierra!. They disembarked on an island, baptized by Columbus as San Salvador. They had reached the American continent but Columbus thought it was the West Indies. They were surprised by the attitude that the so-called Indians had with the Spaniards. The navigator Marco Polo had mentioned that in the Indies there were very civilized people, great palaces and a lot of wealth. But, because Columbus did not know it was a new continent, everything he saw did not make much sense with what he had already heard. For Christopher Columbus, it was a great Cultural Shock to get to a new place, new people very different from the Spaniards, they wore little clothes and spoke a language they did not understand at all. For the same reason that it was something completely different from what he was used to, it was hard for him to adapt. Columbus ordered six men to be loaded into the boat where they were going to visit the new islands, and they had to learn four phrases in Spanish and serve as interpreters and explorers in other islands.Columbus and the other navigators continued to explore the new island discovered by sailing on the rafts built by the natives. They guided the Spaniards and they were getting to know the different Islands. Columbus always thought that he was in China and when the Indians showed them the places where there was gold, he thought that some king lived nearby and thats why there were so many riches. But as they advance, Columbus and the sailors realize that there was no gold and needed him to take it to the queen and to pay him what he gave her for his expedition. After continuing touring different islands such as Hispaniola, today is known as Haiti and the Dominican Republic until finally arriving in Cuba, where the Indians said that they would find gold there. During their trip, Columbus was getting to know the Indians more. He tried to adapt to his way of life and realized they were good people. In all the islands, and always according to Columbus, the inhabitants seem hospitable, happy and innocent. So in their huts hang some things of spun cotton and nets in which they slept what they called hammocks. But even though the Europeans admired the simplicity of the Indians, they were worried, upset and offended. Innocence never ceases to offend, never stops inviting the attack, and the Indians seemed the most innocent people anyone has ever seen. Without the help of Christianity or civilization, they had achieved virtues that Europeans liked to think were the right result of Christianity and civilization. The fury with which the Spaniards assaulted the Arawaks even after enslaving them must surely have been in part a blind impulse to crush an innocence that seemed to negate the Europeans prized assumption of their own civilized and Christian superiority over barbarous nudes and pagans. After several days of being on different islands, Christopher Columbus decides to return to Spain to tell the Catholic Monarchs about his arrival in the Indies. Thanks to the trip of Columbus they begin to develop different trips but never one like the first one. Christopher Columbus, for his great interest in wanting to show the world that there were different ways to get to the Indies, discovered a new continent. At first, everything was different. Nothing coincided with what he had been told about the Indies. Christopher Columbus died on May 19, 1506, in the city of Valladolid in Spain without knowing that he had discovered a new continent.

Monday, May 11, 2020

How Drinking Addiction Is Under Challenge - 1403 Words

Nowadays as science and technology develop rapidly, traditional theory of explaining drinking addiction is under challenge. More and more neuroscientists, psychologists and biologists contribute to the exploration of chemical mechanisms working behind alcohol and addiction. As one of the most well-known neuroscientist, Marc Lewis (2011) offers his point of view is that alcohol ultimately affects the brain, which is the source of all our experience (p.22). As we all know, brain is the primary organ of mind, the crucial center of control, and the ultimate foundation of ideas. Even subtle changes in brain can directly lead to the alteration in a person’s mood, cognition and behaviours. Based on the knowledge that I learned in†¦show more content†¦Neurotransmitters carry information and transmit chemical signals throughout the body. This corresponds to what Lewis introduces- a crucial inhibitory neurotransmitter-GABA and the change of firing rate of neurons in the cortex. Contrary to common beliefs, alcohol is actually a depressant. By enhancing GABA’s transmission, alcohol slows down our thoughts, impede our behaviours and weakens our judgements. Scientifically saying, â€Å"the brain’s electrical activities are decreased† (Connor, 2014). This is why Lewis feels â€Å"different- light and breezy, but then hugely clumsy when he [tries to] reach for the bottle too quickly† when he gets drunk for the first time (Lewis, 2011, p. 19). His consciousness is clear, but his body movement is limited, which tells us that the interactions between neurotransmitters are eliminated. This situation is also listed in the effects of drinking section in Teen Health textbook, stating that coordination and movement may be affected by alcohol (Mc-Graw Hill, 2004, p. 569). Also, the chapter 13 of Al-Anon book revolves around an event about helping a teenage to curb her violent temper. In the story, the girl says, â€Å"I knew that my violence against my mom was never a voluntary act. I didn’t want to hurt her, but I didn’t know how to stop, how to break the pattern† (Al-Anon, 1995, p.478). From her words, we can tell that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Research Questions, Objectives and Hypothesis Free Essays

Research objectives are the goals of the research study. Research objectives specify the reason researchers are conducting research. For example, researchers may want to better understand the difference in pain scale results among subjects with a diagnosis of moderate traumatic brain injury. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Questions, Objectives and Hypothesis or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this case the research objective would cause researchers to take steps to conduct scientific analysis to determine the variations in pain experienced between a group of individuals without a diagnosis of TBI and a group of individuals with TBI. The research objective is to determine if there is a difference in perceived pain levels among patients with a diagnosis of moderate traumatic brain injury as compared with individuals without a diagnosis of moderate traumatic brain injury. The objective is the reason researchers are conducting the research. Farrugia et al. cites Hayes in saying when formulating a research objective it is essential to know â€Å"where the boundary between current knowledge and ignorance lies. † (Farrugia 2010). Understanding the missing component among previously conducted research and current observations is a key component when formulating a research objective. Research questions are the questions asked in order to achieve the objective. According to Farrugia et al. , an effective research question should â€Å"specify the population of interest, be of interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field† and be compliant with current ethical standards (Farrugia et al. 2010). The study authors further suggest using the FINER criteria in order to develop an effective initial research question. This delineates the research question into several component parts to analyze in detail the efficacy of the research question and if, among all the available or visible possible questions, the question chosen is the most effective research question to guide the study. For example, according to Jackson, a research question may state â€Å"do science majors score higher on intelligence tests then students in the general population† (Jackson 2011). This question guides the course of the research study and guides researchers in setting up the study effectively and accurately. It is important, throughout the course of research, to ensure that additional questions do not cloud the initial research question (Farrugia et al. 2010). This requires a focus on the original research question and the ability of researchers to set aside additional questions that may arise for later research studies. A research hypothesis or alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis which researchers â€Å"want to support that predicts a significant difference exists between the two groups being compared† (Jackson 2011). For further description, Farrugia et al. describes the research hypothesis a hypothesis developed â€Å"from the research question and then the main elements of the study — sampling strategy, intervention (if applicable), comparison and outcome variables — are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical and ultimately clinical significance† (Farrugia et al.2010). The research hypothesis differs from the null hypothesis and sets the course of the study, the study details and types of measures used during the study. Jackson provides an example of a research hypothesis being derived from an initial research objective when a researcher wants to illustrate that children who attend educationally-based after school programs have higher IQ scores compared to children who do not attend educationally-based after school programs. The alternative hypothesis in this case would be that the researcher wants to prove that children who attend educationally-based after school programs have higher IQ scores. In order to accomplish this, because of the nature of proving and disproving facts and the impossibility of proving the truth of the hypothesis through statistics, the researcher would have to construct a null hypothesis â€Å"the hypothesis predicting that no differences exists between the groups being compares† (Jackson 2011). In this case the null hypotheses would perhaps say that children who attend academically-based after school programs have the same IQ scores as children who do not attend such programs. This would then allow the researcher to attempt to disprove the null hypothesis using inferential statistics to reject the null hypothesis, which in turn would mean the research or alternative hypothesis, is potentially supported by the data gathered by the researcher. Another important consideration is weather the hypothesis will be one-tailed or two-tailed. A one-tailed hypothesis is an hypothesis â€Å"in which the researcher predicts the direction of the expected difference between the groups† (Jackson 2011). A two-tailed hypothesis is â€Å"an alternative hypothesis in which the researcher predicts that the groups being compared differ but does not predict the direction of the difference. † Whether one-tailed or two tailed (Jackson 2011) the hypothesis gives credence to the research and provides the schema on which researchers build their research study. How to cite Research Questions, Objectives and Hypothesis, Essays

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock Essay Example

Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock Paper T. S. Elliot, the speaker is Froufrou himself. He is debating with the two conflicting sides of his personality. One wants him to propose love, the other wants him to hold back. The setting Is most likely In the early asses or so, taking Into consideration the afternoon tea, the shawls the ladles wear, and the skirts that trail along the floor(102). The situation Is fairly straightforward In some respects. Alfred Froufrou is on his way to a tea In the mid-afternoon and Is indecisive as to whether he should declare his love or not. Figurative language is cost abundant in this poem. Throughout, parts of the city are personified as being human while Froufrou is personified as being less than human. The yellow fog and the sky which is like a patient appear intelligent to the reader of the poem. On the other hand, Froufrou thinks of himself as a crab which should be scuttling across the floor of the sea or a senile old man who wears flannel trousers. This evidence the city and nature which are the yellow fog and the sky are taking mastery over Froufrou. They have become king. The phrase, But as If a magic lantern threw the nerves In tatters on the screen(105) has thematic Importance as well. We will write a custom essay sample on Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A magic lantern Is a movie projector; hence, Froufrou is viewing his life and thought as a movie with a predetermined end. This predetermined end Is that his love would not Like him and that he would fall In his proposal of love. Irony exists In the title, for this poem Is not a livelong but rather a piece mourning a mans fear to propose love. Nearly all of Frocks allusions are overstatement. He speaks of himself as one decapitated and one absolutely banned from telling his story of love. This, however, is not the case as Froufrous only limitation is himself. Before moving on, it is imperative that a precise view of J. Alfred Froufrous personality be extrapolated. First of all, Frock is in a state of terrible uncertainty. He is both the you and l in line 1, symbolizing his internal conflict. Such lines as, When the evening is spread out against the sky Like a patient theorized upon a table(2-3) and When I am pinned and wriggling against the wall, Then how should I vividly portray Froufrous own sense of paralysis. He feels that he has no control over the situation whatsoever. Furthermore, e thinks himself totally unfit to take up a courtship. Statements like They will say: School his hair is growing ) and They will say: DHOW his legs and arms are thin(44) express his inner lack of self-esteem and self-confidence. Froufrou worries about the rebuke of mainstream society for his expression of love and does not want to disturb the universe(46) lest all his faults are revealed. He fears rejection from his own lover as well. Would it have been worthwhile If one, settling a pillow or throwing Off shawl, And turning toward the window, should say: that is not it at al, That is not what I meant, at all'(106-110). The final piece of this poem that needs to be examined in order to unlock Froufrous personality Is the opening epigraph. This epigraph is from Dents Inferno and If translated Into English it reads thus: If I believed my answer were being given to someone who would ever return to the world, this flame would shake no more. But since no one has ever returned alive from this depth, Is what I hear Is true, I will answer you without fear of disgrace. This passage resonates with Froufrou, for he is in a hell himself. A hell of his own thoughts an Nonsensical. He cannot rolling enamels to ace one way or another. Moreover, Nils own worries and qualms about himself are near tortuous. The Livelong of J. Alfred Froufrou contains numerous allusions to other literature. Three of the most striking allusions are those to John the Baptist, Lazarus, and Hamlet. First, the allusion to John the Baptist reveals the relationship of society to Froufrou. Society has decapitated Froufrou and discouraged him from fully expressing his love . The allusion to Lazarus is tied to Froufrou in that Just as Lazarus was unable to tell his story of hell to those n Earth, Froufrou is unable, or thinks he is unable to declare his love to his girlfriend. The allusion to Hamlet is the most important of all. Froufrou is quite similar to Hamlet in that both are procrastinators. Still, Hamlet decided to force the moment to its crisis while Froufrou Just apathetically pushed aside the moment of climax and went on with his sterile, boring life. He decided not to risk the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. In general, the tone of this poem is one of near absolute despair. The rottenness of inner-city life provides a depressing undertone. Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels And sawdust restaurants with oyster shells(6-7). The impersonality of the city is well pictured by Elliot here. It with its yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes is the backdrop for the internal conflict of a Froufrou who is exhausted with life. The inner-city also stifles Froufrou. I should have been a pair of ragged claws Scuttling across the floors of silent seas(73-74). In short, city life is the very thing that is the bane of Froufrous love. A striking theme in this poem is that urbanity paralyzes the will. Streets that follow like a tedious argument Of insidious intent To lead you to an overwhelming question(8-10). The streets, or rather urban life, are a great factor in Froufrous indecisiveness. He sees the impersonal world about him and feels discouraged. Shall I say, I have gone at dusk through narrow streets And watched the smoke that rises from the pipes Of lonely men in shirt-sleeves, leaning out of windows(70-72). This passage once again reveals the mellowing nature of city life. The very nature of the inner-city is to oppress. In the large metropolis there is no opportunity for recreation, no chance to smell fresh air from the countryside, no silence, no freedom. This excerpt shows how the city naturally leads to apathy: The yellow fog that rubs its back on the window- panes Lingered in the pools that stand in drains Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys Curled once about the house and fell 5, 18, 19, 22). Here the smog of the inner city has been personified. It itself reeks of yellow cowardice. It rubs on windows, lingers in pools, stands by as soot falls upon it, ND falls asleep. The yellow fog had no type of invigorating effect at all. Rather, it led towards tiredness and apathy. The whole next stanza shows the effect of this city upon Froufrou. He decides that there will be time(23) for a hundred indecision(32) and leans toward not disturbing the universe and not disturbing the women who come and go Talking of Michelangelo(35-36). Clearly, Froufrou has become apathetic as a result of an impersonal city and an impersonal society which is represented by the women. Finally, the urban life is an agent of deception. It asses Froufrou to believe that there will be time yet for a hundred indecision, And for a hundred visions and revisions, Before the taking of a toast and tea(32-34), while in fact, the eternal Footman holds Froufrous coat at the door, waiting for him to die. Urbanity veils death from Froufrou and in so doing killed all his spirit. For truly, ten Tear AT tenant can De ten greatest motivator. I en clay also sleeves Protract auto his love and his own self. I grow old grow old 1 shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled. Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach? I shall wear white flannel trousers and walk upon the beach. I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each. I do not think they will sing to It is society that forces Froufrou into believing he is too old to be adventurous. It is the dead urban lifestyle that makes him feel he has lost his chance for love. The dirty inner city had such far- reaching effects as making Froufrou think that the mermaids or his lover would never sing to him. For indeed, they could have if his apathy and fear of retribution had not been king. This passage is central to everything Elliot is saying. It preaches of defeatism, the giving in to a brutal world. What man ought to do, though, is overcome such adversity through strength of mind. In todays society, the trend towards urbanism is equally dangerous to strength of mind. It is the cause of a rise in violence. Depression, suicide, low morale, and low ambition can be linked to it. For urbanity in and of itself is antithetical to all the human race has strove for. Instead of upholding beauty, it diminishes it, and instead of nurturing love and relationship, the city quells such feeling through impersonality. It is not progress, but regression. Another interpretation of these facts is that procrastination, which has been linked to age in this poem, has a sort of snowball effect. The older Froufrou grows, the less likely he will propose his love and the more he thinks about the paradoxical situation he has found himself in, the more he fears approaching his love. This theme resonates on a much less complex level than the first but is much more applicable. Take risks and live lively or such things as urbanity, society, age, and fear will grow upon you and squelch all adventurous spirit.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Free Essays on Rosa Louise Parks

Parks, Rosa Louise (1913- ), civil rights leader, born in Tuskegee, Alabama. She attended Alabama State College, worked as a seamstress and housekeeper, and was active in the Montgomery Voters League and the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Youth Council. In 1943 she was elected secretary of the Montgomery branch of the NAACP. In a celebrated incident in 1955 she was arrested for violating segregation laws when she refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger. This resulted in a boycott of the bus system by blacks, with Martin Luther King, Jr. leading the movement. In spite of harassment the boycott continued, and in 1956 segregated seating was challenged in a federal lawsuit. Within a few months bus segregation was ruled unconstitutional, and the buses were officially desegregated in December 1956. Parks, who had lost her job because of the boycott, moved to Detroit, Michigan, the following year, and again took in sewing. She also worked as a fundraiser for the NAACP. In 1965 she was hired by Congressman John Conyers, Jr., also a civil rights leader, to manage his Detroit office. She remained active in the NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). In 1987 she founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development, offering guidance to young blacks. She won the NAACP's Spingarn Medal (1970) and the Martin Luther King Jr. Award (1980), as well as an honorary degree from Shaw College.... Free Essays on Rosa Louise Parks Free Essays on Rosa Louise Parks Parks, Rosa Louise (1913- ), civil rights leader, born in Tuskegee, Alabama. She attended Alabama State College, worked as a seamstress and housekeeper, and was active in the Montgomery Voters League and the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Youth Council. In 1943 she was elected secretary of the Montgomery branch of the NAACP. In a celebrated incident in 1955 she was arrested for violating segregation laws when she refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger. This resulted in a boycott of the bus system by blacks, with Martin Luther King, Jr. leading the movement. In spite of harassment the boycott continued, and in 1956 segregated seating was challenged in a federal lawsuit. Within a few months bus segregation was ruled unconstitutional, and the buses were officially desegregated in December 1956. Parks, who had lost her job because of the boycott, moved to Detroit, Michigan, the following year, and again took in sewing. She also worked as a fundraiser for the NAACP. In 1965 she was hired by Congressman John Conyers, Jr., also a civil rights leader, to manage his Detroit office. She remained active in the NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). In 1987 she founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development, offering guidance to young blacks. She won the NAACP's Spingarn Medal (1970) and the Martin Luther King Jr. Award (1980), as well as an honorary degree from Shaw College....

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Scythians in the Ancient World

Scythians in the Ancient World Scythians a Greek designation were an ancient group of people from Central Eurasia distinguished from others of the area by their customs and their contact with their neighbors. There appear to have been several groups of Scythians, who were known to the Persians as Sakas. We dont know where each group lived, but they lived in the area from the Danube River to Mongolia on the East-West dimension and southward to the Iranian plateau. Where the Scythians Lived Nomadic, Indo-Iranian (a term that also covers inhabitants of the Iranian plateau and the Indus Valley [e.g., Persians and Indians]) horsemen, archers, and pastoralists, depicted wearing pointed hats and trousers, the Scythians lived in the Steppes northeast of the Black Sea, from the 7th-3rd century B.C. Scythia also refers to a region from the Ukraine and Russia (where archaeologists have unearthed Scythian burial mounds) into Central Asia. Eurasian Map showing Steppe tribes, including SythiansRelated map showing location in Asia, as well The Scythians are closely associated with horses (and the Huns). [The 21st-century movie Attila showed a starving boy drinking the blood of his horse to stay alive. However much this might be Hollywood license, it conveys the essential, survival bond between the steppe nomads and their horses.] Ancient Names of the Scythians The greek epic poet Hesiod called the northern tribes hippemolgi mare milkers.The Greek historian Herodotus refers to the European Scythians as Scythians and the eastern ones as Sacae. Beyond the Scythians and other Steppe tribes was supposed to be Apollos sometimes home, among the Hyperboreans.The name Scythians and Sacae applied to themselves was Skudat archer.Later, the Scythians were sometimes called Getae.The Persians also called the Scythians Sakai. According to Richard N. Frye (The Heritage of Central Asia; 2007) of these, there wereSaka HaumavargaSaka Paradraya (beyond the sea or river)Saka Tigrakhauda (pointed hats)Saka para Sugdam (beyond Sogdiana)Scythians, who attacked the kingdom of Urartu in Armenia, were called Ashguzai or Ishguzai by the Assyrians. The Scythians may have been the Biblical Ashkenaz. Legendary Origins of the Scythians A rightly skeptical Herodotus says the Scythians claimed the first man to exist in the region at a time when it was desert and about a millennium before Darius of Persia was named Targitaos. Targitaos was the son of Zeus and the daughter of the river Borysthenes. He had three sons from whom the tribes of the Scythians sprang.Another legend Herodotus reports connects the Scythians with Hercules and Echidna. Tribes of the Scythians Herodotus IV.6 lists the 4 tribes of the Scythians: From Leipoxais sprang the Scythians of the race called Auchatae;from Arpoxais, the middle brother, those known as the Catiari and Traspians;from Colaxais, the youngest, the Royal Scythians, or Paralatae.All together they are named Scoloti, after one of their kings: the Greeks, however, call them Scythians. The Scythians are also divided into: Sacae,Massagetae (may mean strong Getae),Cimmerians, andGetae. The Appeal of the Scythians The Scythians are connected with a variety of customs that interest modern people, including the use of hallucinogenic drugs, fabulous gold treasures, and cannibalism [see Cannibalism in ancient myth]. They have been popular as the noble savage from the 4th century B.C. Ancient writers eulogized the Scythians as more virtuous, hardy, and chaste than their civilized contemporaries. Sources The Scythians, by Jona Lendering.The Scythian Domination in Western Asia: Its Record in History, Scripture, and Archaeology, by E. D. Phillips World Archaeology. 1972.The Scythian: His Rise and Fall, by James William Johnson. Journal of the History of Ideas. 1959 University of Pennsylvania Press.The Scythians: Invading Hordes from the Russian Steppes, by Edwin Yamauchi. The Biblical Archaeologist. 1983.

Monday, February 17, 2020

The differences between Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman Mosques Essay

The differences between Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman Mosques - Essay Example It was was founded in the eighth century by Suleiman Abd probably after the conquest of Aleppo. The mosque is slim, and its base is square having built using minaret. The Great Mosque is a six storey building divided by naskhi and Kufic inscriptions. Architected by Hassan Mufarraj, the Mosque has continuous moldings, pilasters, polyfoil arches and elaborate trefoil. It is the earliest extant monument in the prehistoric city of Aleppo and one hemicycle of the then city’s Byzantine cathedral still exists in the northern part of Bab Antikiyah (Ernst 38). Additionally, the mosque also has three major fragments: inscribed stones, grans antique and capitals. Moreover, the minaret of the Great Mosque in Aleppo is seen to be heavy with some relief ornament. The classicizing details, continuous moldings, cusped arches and certain idiosyncratic details all originate from the distinctive northwest Syria. The idiosyncratic details included pointed ovals that were inserted at the cusps of the moldings. The Mosque also is had mugarnas-like cornice on top of the shaft that helped to support the balcony. From a closer range, the masonry finishing does not look as fine as on the later ornamented style mosques in the Mamluk and Ottoman dynasties. The softer stones make the overall surface of the mosque to look smooth thus a finer finish. From a different dimension, the east and south courtyard facades preserve the significant sections of Nural-Din’s reconstruction of the mosques. Additionally, the complex Stereotomy of the ornamented style is left to free play and is accompanied by moldings drawn from local Late Antique monuments, inscriptions and finely dressed masonry that is beveled along the coursing. The Mosque was of great importance in the Muslim world since it is the oldest congregational mosque in the Islamic architecture (Burgoyne, 68). On the hand, the Mamluk dynasties new form of architecture evolved